primatology

Death without Weeping: Maternal Bonds towards Deceased Offspring among Non-Human Primates

Nonhuman primate mothers do not weep in response to death of their infants. When a non-human primate mother has her offspring, she has already invested considerably time as well as physical and metabolic energy to gestation and birth of the infant. Death of an infant, therefore, is detrimental to the mother who already invested in her offspring, as well as the group’s genetic continuity. Whether or not the death of non-human primate mother’s offspring elicits an emotional or affectionate response is more difficult to identify.

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Primatologists have long acknowledged the importance of death of a primate for calculations of demographic trends and constructing life tables (Altman and Altman, 1970). Studies of behavioral responses to death among rhesus macaques include elevated grooming levels between group members, possibly to counteract the loss of a group member. The living also engaged with the deceased by grooming, inspection, as well as aggression towards the corpse (Buhl et al., 2012). Female hamadryas baboons show increase in stress hormone levels after the death of a conspecific (Engh et al., 2006). Studies of chimpanzees group responses to pre- and post-death care of members of their cohort indicate that behaviors typically include close inspection and tests for signs of life at the moment of death, male aggression towards the corpse, all-night attendance by family members, cleaning of the corpse, and even avoidance of the place where death occurred (see Goodall, 1977, Anderson et al., 2010, and Biro et al., 2010).

Whether or not there exists a general trend of maternal responses to primate death remains poorly understood. The mother-offspring bond is considered to be one of the longest and most essential social bonds among mammals (Cronin et al., 2011). The maternal reposes associated with the permanent, premature disruption of this social bond—the death of the offspring—has rarely been investigated (Cronin et al., 2011). Early primatological studies documented male responses to dead infants among semi-free-ranging Barbary macaques (Merz, 1978). A long-term study of wild geladas from Ethiopia recorded 14 cases of dead infants being carried by females was the first attempt to explore responses to death in non-human primates, focusing on allomaternal-like behavior towards dead infant (Fashing et al., 2010). Primate death and behavioral responses from group members have also been documented from several sites, including the Gombe, Tai Forest, and safari park in Scotland (Teleki, 1973; Boesch and Boesch-Achermann, 2000; Anderson, 2011, respectively).

Primatological studies have documented instances when mothers continue to handle the corpses of their infants. Given this prolonged interaction, I wonder, does maternal attachment continues after the death of her offspring? If so, what triggers this particular behavior?

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Before I examine the behavioral responses to infant death, it is important to briefly describe what is considered “normal” mother-infant behavior among primate. Mothers and their infants represent a central focus of interest for other females in the group among species and groups of social primates (e.g. Hrdy 1976; Seyfarth 1976; Altmann 1980; Nicolson 1987; Maestripieri 1994a). Females visibly show their interest in interacting with newborn infants. When new infants are present in a group, subadult and nulliparous females approach the mothers and attempt to sniff, investigate, and pick up the young infants (Nicolson 1987). Females also have been observed grooming the mother in exchange for handling her new infant (Altmann, 1980, O’Brien & Robinson, 1991, Muroyama, 1994, Di Bitetti, 1997, Silk, 1999).

While female attraction to infants represents a common feature of primate species, maternal response to infant handling shows a certain degree of variability (Nicolson 1987; Maestripieri 1994b). Maternal responses to infant death have been attributed to several ecological and circumstantial explanations as well as several hypotheses in the primatological literature:

  • Unawareness of Death Hypothesis (Hrdy, 1999)
  • The Decomposition Hypothesis (Fashing et al., 2011)
  • Post-Parturient Condition Hypothesis (Kaplan, 1973; Biro et al., 2010)
  • “Learning to Mother” Hypothesis for Learning about Death (Warren and Williamson, 2004

Unawareness of Death Hypothesis

Extended carrying of a dead infant may indicate that the mother is unaware that her infant is no longer alive. According to the hypothesis, primate mothers of recently dead infants continue interacting with her infant exhibiting behaviors typical of new mothers, such as grooming and licking. For example, Kaplan (1972) recorded responses of captive female squirrel monkeys that were presented with the corpses of their dead infants. The infants had been dead for approximately two weeks. The mothers seemed unaware that their infant was no longer living, yet attempted to retrieve the corpse by lifting it or administer vocalizations regardless (Kaplan, 1972). However, these experiments do not simulate a situation that would occur in the squirrel monkeys’ natural environment. The mother’s infant was immediately retrieved after its death, which denied the mothers an opportunity to interact with her infant post-mortem.

Contrary to the hypothesis, there are examples of maternal behavior that shows the mother continues handling her infant while also exhibiting behaviors indicating that she is fully aware that her infant is no longer alive. A white-faced capuchin mother continued to groom and lick the body while trying to repel carnivorous insects from the corpse. She also allowed her dead infant to be fully submerged in water while she drank. Once she finished, she retrieved the corpse, and continued to transport her dead infant for several days (Perry and Manson, 2008). Similarly, chimpanzee mothers from Bossou, Guinea, appear to be aware that the bodies of the infants they carried were inanimate, and adopted carrying techniques not normally used with healthy juveniles (Biro et al., 2010).

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It is possible that uniparious mothers are unable to differentiation between living and non-living offspring due to a lack of experience. Studies have shown, however, that number of living offspring does not necessarily contribute to the duration for which in infant corpse is handled. Two multiparious snub-nosed monkey mothers carried and handled their dead infants for 4 days and one month. The mothers had had infants previously, and therefore could differentiate between normal, responsive infant behavior and abnormal, unresponsive infant behavior (Li et al., 2012). Similarly, multiparious chimpanzees mothers have been documented carrying their infant’s corpses for longer compared to the chimpanzee mothers carrying the corpse of their first and only offspring (Biro et al., 2010). Warren and Williamson (2004) also noted that two multiparious gorilla females also continued to handle their infants long after their death. Whether or not a primate mother is nulliparious or multiparious does not appear to influence how long she continues to interact with the corpse of her infant.

Overall, it appears that the unawareness of death hypothesis does not adequately explain the mechanism of maternal behaviors towards dead offspring. Continued handling of her infant does not necessarily suggest that she is unaware that her infant is not longer living; rather, the mother may be prolonging the separate from her infant for another reason.

The Decomposition Hypothesis

According to the decomposition hypothesis, any long-term carrying of the infant by the mother does not represent a sense of loss or attachment to the infant. Rather, mothers are unaware of the infant’s death and continue to carry the corpse until clear signals of decomposition (e.g. particular odor cues) indicate death (Fashing et al., 2010). Extreme climate conditions (such as cold or hot arid weather) slow the natural rate of decomposition of deceased bodies (Haglund and Sorg, 1997). Prolonged carrying (defined as longer than 10 days) of an infant corpse appears to be more likely in extreme climatic conditions, particularly in cold or hot arid weather, that naturally slows decomposition of infant body (Fashing et al., 2010).

Several studies of primates living in extreme climate conditions have supported the decomposition hypothesis. Gelada monkeys (Theropithecus gelada) of Guassa, Ethiopia, live in an extreme climatic condition that favors a slower rate of decomposition of dead individuals. Over a 3.75 year-long study period, 14 mothers carried and handled their mummified infants for 10 or more days. Extended carrying of dead infants has been documented among mountain gorillas that inhabit unusually cold environments (Fashing et al., 2010b, Nakagawa et al., 2010, Vedder, 1984) and chimpanzees living in extremely arid regions with a long dry season of Bossou, Guinea (Biro et al., 2010, Matsuzawa 1997).

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The decomposition hypothesis is based on another assumption that New World primates in tropical environments appear only to carry or care for dead infants rarely or for only a short period of time. For example, a tufted capuchin mother was reported to carry her dead infant for less than 24 hours after an infanticide attack (Izar et al., 2007). This behavior, however, may be due to the social dynamics of infanticide, rather than the maternal indifference towards her dead infant.

Despite the climatic circumstances that delay decomposition, primates have been documented to carry infants for a long enough period that the body does eventually decay. In this case, signs of decomposition, such as putrefaction and change in the infant’s appearance (e.g. loss of fur and limbs) do not repel mother and, in some cases, other kin and non-kin. For example, Bossou chimpanzee mothers as well as related and unrelated individuals from all age groups of both sexes attempted to handle, lift and drop limbs, and sniff the bodies of three dead infants. Juvenile and infants were even allowed to carry the bodies of infants some distance from the mother in bouts of play. Biro and colleagues (2010) state that they never observed a response that could be interpreted as aversion, despite the bodies’ intense smell of decay and usual appearance of mummified skin and missing fur.

Similarly, four female mountain gorilla continued to carry their dead offspring even when the corpses lost their hair and heads, and despite the pervasive smell of decaying flesh (Warren and Williamson, 2004). Observations made by Rumbaugh (1965) of captive squirrel monkeys in San Diego, California, noted that a mother continued to handle her infant for six weeks as the corpse began to putrefy. Over a 24-year study period of Japanese macaques, a total of 157 mothers continued to carry their dead infants between 1 to 17 days despite the quick progression of the decomposition, and the putrid smell and swarm of flies surrounding the dead infant and the mother (Sugiyama et al., 2009). In this case, however, non-kin avoided the mother and her dead infant, seemingly due to the smell, and she received less social grooming that before their infants had died (Sugiyame et al., 2009). Sugiyama and colleagues (2009) state that they cannot determine why mothers continue to carry the corpses given its bad state of decomposition. It is apparent, however, that mothers do not necessarily abandon their offspring due to aversion.

It is possible that “caretaking” behaviors rather than the environmental setting facilitates mummification. In the study conducted by Biro and colleagues (2010) in Bossou, Guinea, three chimpanzee mothers continued to carry the mummified corpses of their infants for 19, 27, and 68 days following their death, exhibiting extensive care of the body by grooming it regularly, sharing her day and night nests with it, and showing distress whenever they became separated. The mothers also chased away flies that circled the corpses, twice with the aid of a tool (Biro et al., 2010).

In sum, the decomposition hypothesis has several flaws. Infant handling is not limited to primates living in unusually arid, cold regions. In fact, mothers continue to handle their dead infants even though the corpses admit olfactory and visual signs of putrefaction and decomposition. Overall, it seems that the foul odor of decomposing flesh does not appear to deter mothers from transporting and manipulating corpses. Oftentimes, this “care-taking” behavior seems to (unintentionally?) preserve the offspring. Yet, this treatment towards dead infants will be explored in the post-parturient condition hypothesis.

Post-Parturient Condition Hypothesis

Post-parturient condition hypothesis proposes that postpartum hormones influence maternal behaviors toward dead infants. Physical characteristics and particular hormones are essential for the onset and maintenance of infant-carrying behavior and the development of the mother–infant bond towards living infants (Kaplan 1973; Biro et al. 2010). Neuroendocrine mechanisms and physical characteristics of the infant (such as natal attractiveness) stimulate and regulate motherly behavior to care for and protect her offspring (see Maestripieri, 2001, 1991). At birth, an infant’s attractiveness includes size at birth, vocalizations made by the infant (e.g. “purring” noises), infantile facial expressions, distinguishing morphological features such as bug ears or tail tufts, and distinctive coat color (Hrdy, 1976).

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Human, non-human primate, and non-primate mammal studies demonstrate that there are endocrine influences on mother-infant interactions and the formation of bond post-partum (Maestripieri, 1999). In non-primate mammals, pregnancy and lactation hormones enhance maternal responsiveness and behavior although they are not strictly necessary for their onset or maintenance (Stern, 1989). In New World monkeys such as red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus) and common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), there is evidence that hormones influence both responsiveness to young during pregnancy and quality of maternal care during lactation (Pryce et al., 1993). Studies of group-living pigtail macaque females show that the females increased their rate of interaction with infants during the final weeks of pregnancy that corresponded with an increase in plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone (Maestripieri and Wallen, 1995; Maestripieri and Zehr, 1998). Fleming and colleagues (1997) showed that human mothers who maintained high levels of estradiol over the parturitional period also had higher feelings of attachment to their own infant in the early postpartum days than mothers whose estradiol levels dropped. Thus, these studies indicate that primate and human parenting is partially influenced by physiological variables.

The continued interaction and gradual separation between the mother and infants’ bodies appears to also be a by-product of hormonal condition of pregnancy and the formation of the mother-infant bond in post-parturient female primates. Behavioral studies note that mothers do not simply abandon the corpse of her dead infant. Rather, the mother continues to interact with the corpse, gradually separate herself physically from the body of her dead offspring.

There are several physiological characteristics that may be observed in female primates that indicate that hormone levels are fluctuating and therefore influencing her behavior. Postpartum amenorrhea in chimpanzees lasts around four years, but is shortened with the death of an infant (Wallis, 1997). The infant could no longer breastfeed and lactation ceased, triggering the mothers’ reproductive cycle to return.

To date, there are no studies that directly link changes in hormones during the mother’s transition from handling her infant until the moment she abandons its. Therefore, the post-parturient condition hypothesis relies on behavioral studies. Several behavioral studies report that mothers gradually separate herself from the corpse of her infant. For example, gelada monkey mothers also experience a graduate separation that includes a transition from only the mother handling the infant corpse, and then allowing other group members to handle to deceased juvenile (Fashing et al., 2010).

The post-parturient condition is best illustrated by observations conducted at Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage Trust, a chimpanzee sanctuary in Northwest Zambia (Cronin et al., 2010). Shortly after the death of her infant, the mother transitioned from maintaining close, constant proximity to the dead body to creating physical distance from the deceased infant (Cronin et al., 2010). She maintained visual contact with the body when not in immediate proximity to it. As time passes, mothers transition to lessening her contact with the body and allowing others to inspect the body (Biro et al., 2010; Hosaka et al., 2000). Other studies have also reported that chimpanzee mothers gradually transition from extreme attachment to the body of their dead infants immediately following death to weakened attachment to the body as time passes (Hosaka et al., 2000, Biro et al., 2010).

Ring-talked lemur (Lemu catta) mothers have been reported to continue to return to their dead infants several times for several hours after the infant’s death. Every time each female returned to the body, she would sniff, lick, and touch the infant (Nakamichi et al., 1996). Despite the increasing distance between the troop and the deceased infant, the mothers continued to return to her dead infant, even when the troop have moved 400 meters away from the corpse (Nakamichi et al., 1996). Six of the seven mothers attempted to lift the corpses, and one mother clumsily carried the corpse 15 meters and attempted to jump into a tree. Mothers were unable to maintain proximity between both the troop and the corpse concurrently because she was not able to carry her dead offspring (Nakamichi et al., 1996).

The post-parturient hypothesis appears to most adequately examine the mechanism of maternal handling and carrying of deceased infant remains. Carrying and handling a corpse after death expresses a strong attachment, and the gradual separation of mother from her dead infant are behavioral responses to hormonal changes. Whether or not death of an infant elicits a psychological or emotion response is difficult, possibly impossible to identify. To compliment the hormonal-centric tenants of the post-parturient hypothesis, I will explore literature that contemplates whether or not the prolonged carrying and handling of corpses is part of process in which primates “learn” about death.

“Learning to Mother” Hypothesis for Learning about Death

Studies of maternal responses to death among apes provide additional information investigating whether or not the extended interaction with infant corpses is a period during which primates engage in a learning process. The “learning to mother” hypothesis was first proposed by Hrdy (1976) to explain why female young and non-mothers interact so frequently with offspring. Warren and Williamson (2004) adapt this hypothesis to a population of mountain gorillas to illustrate that the prolonged handling of dead infants is a type of social learning for mothers, young, and non-mothers to acquaint themselves with cues typical of death.

Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus Spider Monkey Central America mother and baby

Primatologists have investigated the long-term benefits of young and non-mothers carrying living infants. The handling of live infants by non- mothers has been referred to as aunting, baby-sitting, kidnapping, play-mothering, allomaternal behavior, or allomothering (Hrdy, 1976; Maestripieri, 1994a, 1994b). According to the ‘‘learning to mother’’ hypothesis, young or nulliparous females who handle infants gain maternal experience, and recalling these skills later in life, making them more capable of raising their own offspring (Hrdy, 1976).

The benefits of “learning to mother,” could be gained with a corpse, since the motor skills required to carry an infant while traveling and foraging could still be acquired (Warren and Williamson, 2004). Furthermore, the extending carrying behavior by the mothers, as well as related and unrelated individuals, may be an example of observational learning that promotes prolonged transport of deceased young (Biro et al., 2010). These interactions with a corpse could be part of a process in which the primate learns to recognize death.

Observations of mountain gorillas at Karisoke Research Center, Rwanda, noted that two nullparious mothers in their final months of pregnancy, and two mothers who had recently lost offspring all handled and transported the mothers’ two dead infants (Warren and Williamson, 2004). As previously discussed, the hormonal disposition of the mother may contribute to the continued handle of her infant after death. The hormonal state of pregnant females similarly predisposes her to interact more frequently with infants, even ones that are recently dead. It seems it may be both an innate change in her physiology as well as an opportunity to practice handling infants.

Similarly, Cronin and colleagues (2010) suggest that chimpanzees handle and examine the body of deceased infants in order to recognize cues of a corpse and therefore “learn” about death. Studies conducted at Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage Trust, a chimpanzee sanctuary in Northwest Zambia, recorded that one chimpanzee mother touched the body and face of her dead infant, presumably an action that would have provided olfactory and gustatory information about the infant’s condition (Cronin et al., 2010). Every time she returned to the infant’s corpse, she would closely inspected its face and neck. Cronin and colleagues (2010) suggest that close inspection of the face could serve as the best location to assess the condition of the infant. No changes in eye gaze, breathing, or facial musculature could inform the mother that the infant’s condition had irreversible changed (Cronin et al., 2010). The mother was actively gathering novel sensory information about the dead infant, possibly remembering this information for the next time she encountered the same set of cues. In other words, the mother may have been “learning about death.” (Cronin et al., 2010: 420).

Whether or not prolonged handling of infants is indicative of a “cultural” behavior towards death that is passed on throughout the group and through generations may be impossible to prove. Yet, some researchers suggest that the transmission of knowledge for handling of dead infants that occurs throughout multiple generations and occurs among multiple members of a group may indicate that this learning and knowledge may be transferred (see Cronin et al., 2010; Warren and Williamson, 2004; and Biro et al., 2010). For example, three chimpanzee mothers at Bossou, Guinea, all had infants that died during the study period and all exhibited a similar manner of prolonged handling of dead infants. Biro and colleagues (2010) suggest that the similarities in treatments and behaviors may not be a rare occurrence in this particular community. In fact, the prolonged handling may part of the culture of that particular group. In sum, the learning to mother hypothesis provides an intriguing framework in which primatologists may explore prolonged infant handling among the great apes.

Mother-Infant Bonds and Learning to Grieve?

Overall, it appears there is continued attraction and care towards dead infants occurs to some extent in all major taxaonomic groups (Anderson, 2011). Both the decomposition and unawareness of death hypotheses seem insufficient to explain why primate mothers continue to handle the corpses of offspring after death. Contrary to the unawareness of death hypothesis, primate mothers appear to handle their infants in ways that suggest they are aware that their offspring is no longer living. Similarly, primate mothers continue to handle their dead infants regardless of the environmental setting (arid verses humid) and despite putrefaction and decomposition of the corpse.

The post-parturient condition hypothesis, on the other hand, considers both the behavioral and hormonal responses of primate mothers across primate taxa. The formation of the strong mother-infant bond at birth does not simply disappear once the infant dies; rather, it seems that the mother transitions from physiological conditions typical of motherhood (e.g. cessation of lactation amenorrhea) is concurrent with the mother’s gradual separation from and abandonment of her deceased infant.

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It is particularly interesting that mothers slowly allow conspecifics to handle the corpse, and that recognition of particular cues that signal death may illustrate that young and non-mothers are “learning” to recognize death. Whether or not the handling of dead infants should be considered cultural learning is difficult and potentially impossible to identify. Given that multiple mothers of a particular group of chimpanzees and gorillas all exhibited similar behaviors in response to the death of their infant indicates that the behavior may be contributed to both physiological and social influences.

Studies of primate death are greatly biased towards chimpanzees, but long-term and behavioral studies of gorillas, baboons, and new world monkeys are also becoming more common. Overall, primate behavioral and hormonal studies indicate that continued handling and interaction with infant corpses signifies a connection between the mother and her offspring, even if the offspring has died.

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The scourge of scurvy (vitamin C deficiency) and the demise of Europe’s first settlement in the Western Hemisphere

Mummy of Egypt’s “lost queen” Queen Hatshepsut found, osteological shows died of bone cancer around age 50 

Sharon DeWitte of University of South Carolina, using dental and skeletal evidence to look at populations before, during, and after Black Death swept Europe 

Mexican archaeologist excavate 1600 year old shaft tomb in State of Zacatecas, material evidence suggests the 28 individuals armed for battle in death

Neanderthal moms had it tougher than modern moms, Neanderthal and homo sapien infants had same cranial size at birth, and Neanderthal children grew at faster rates 

Getting to the root of enamel evolution: Connecting genes to hominin teeth shows evidence of natural selection 

Is ignorance bliss? The frustrations of being scientifically literate 

Byran college loosing 25% of faculty after “Adam and Eve” controversy 

Genes made us do it: the new pseudoscience of racial differences see also a great follow up Things to know when talking about race and genetics

Primates and patience: the evolutionary roots of self-control 

Chronicle of higher ed: struggling to find a project that excites you? follow these steps 

Function of human appendix, known use since lost?

Power and glory of the Maya queens, stele at Naachtun depicts fierce-looking, possible warrior, queen

Girl’s 12,000 year old skeleton found in underwater cave may shed light on Native American origins 

Should human remains be put on display? Archaeology and grave robbing 

Five ways twitter can be useful in academic contexts 

In Victorian ear, doctors prescribed beards to keep men healthy 

Restorers to bone up on skills for Kutná Hora ossuary makeover, Prague 

Bone to be wild, fleshing out a career devoted to skeletons and people, tribute to paleopathologist Dr. George Armelagos

Qatari people carry genetic trace of early migrants out of Africa  

Testing on Egyptian coffin’s wood reveals climate change may have caused empire’s fall 

Mountain Gorilla, Cross River Gorilla, and Sumatran Orangutan listed as some of the world’s most endangered animals 

Ancient faeces reveals origins of Puerto Rican natives 

Graphic of Wari woman’s royal tomb reveals burial fit for a queen, Peru 

Federal government jeopardizes Navajo’s family ties to home lands

Is your baby American enough Complicated relationship between genetics and nationality 

This week in anthropology, bioanthropology, bioarchaeology, and archaeology

Scientists find that Neanderthals were not less intelligent than modern humans 

DNA tests can trace your ancestral origins back 1000 years 

Interactions between humans and scavengers have been decisive in human evolution 

Dmanisi “single species” claim draws criticism among paleoanthropologists 

Study shows that white, male professors more likely to respond to other white, male emails than females and minorities 

Sa Huynh site discovered in the Quang Nam providence, China 

Excavations in Nashville Zoo reveal Native American remains 

Archaeologists search for ancient temples and pyramids in Sudan 

Stone darts and dismembered bodies shows 5000 years of violence among Central California Native Americans 

What happens when an orangutan and the slow loris meet 

Who majors in anthropology? This infograph reveals that many successful people did! 

The war over science continues in Congress, Republicans trying to push out scientists from peer reviewing 

Desert geoglyphs in the Chincha Valley, Peru, made by Paracas culture to help point travelers to settlements, possible divided by ethnic and kin groups 

A caring graduate advisor is the key to whether or not a graduate student thrives 

Why do scientists ignore female genitalia and sexual reproduction? 

New center in Arizona helps identify remains of people who attempted to cross the US-Mexican border

Archaeologists find 5600 year old tomb in Hierakonpolis, Egypt

 

Excavations unearth Roman basilica in Bursa, Turkey

Looters destroy tomb in southern Turkey

Researchers find chimpanzee have distinct, individual behaviors, similar to humans 

A look at the Penan hunter-gratherers of the Sarawak rainforest, Borneo 

Inca culture in the Sacred Valley includes sites Pisac, Ollantaytambo, Urubamba, and Moray, Peru

Scientists examine carbon atoms found in mummies reveals vegetarian diet among ancient Egyptians

Black death skeleton reveals harsh life of 14-century Londoners

Rice theory: Why Eastern cultures are more cooperative, see also New Scientist 

Ramesside tomb of Egypt’s royal ambasador discovered at Saqqara, osteological remains reveal individual died suddenly at young age 

Someone had to build Qin Shihuang’a terra-cotta army, archaeologists just found their grave, China

This week in Anthropology, Forensics, Biological Anthropology, and Primatology

Shifting evolution into reverse promises cheaper, greener way to make new drugs

If humans used animal mating rituals

Peru has recovered over 8000 stolen cultural artifacts in the last seven years 

Spanish potsherds evidence of battle between Spanish and Native Americans on Great Plains 

Early Roman irrigation system uncovered in Britain 

10 oldest diseases like smallpox, cholera, and pneumonia 

Science compared every diet and the winner is no one 

UNESCO praises Peru’s work in combating illicit artifacts trade   

Tattoo discovered on ancient Egyptian mummy 

Scientists digitally unwrap mummy of Egyptian priest Neswaiu

Skull tower, a monument built along the road to Constantinople, served as a warning to anyone rising against the Ottoman Empire

Forensic anthropologist in El Salvador excavates and identifies victims of gang murders 

Shipwrecks archaeologists would love to find, from the Minoans to a shipwrecked Egyptian pharaoh 

Egyptian wine grape guard’s contract decoded   

Centuries-old grills of ancient BBQ lovers founding Turkey  

In Borneo, archaeologists are discovering vessels called “dragon jars” that sometimes contain bones of the dead 

Emperor Claudius dressed as pharaoh in newly uncovered carving 

The last taboo: what makes male humans and chimpanzees power hungry 

Quinnipiac students help investigate a possible Santeria ritual

Hey person in photo, that is not a right femur, why people need osteologists

Women in prehistory, who made this hand impression? 

Pre-Inca tomb discovered under the house of writer Mario Vargas Llosa  

Medical first: 3-D Printed skull successfully planted in woman 

Discoveries challenge beliefs on human arrival in the Americas 

Black death was airborne, not spread by fleas, research says 

Alaska’s real life “Bones” scientists puzzles out violence in ancient societies 

DNA sequencing of human remains paints a complicated picture of human evolution 

 

 

This week in anthropology, archaeology, bioarchaeology, biological anthropology, human evolution

Representation and perception of death in Neolithic Near East site Tell Qarassa examining funerary site, human image, and similar iconographic conventions

3 million year old fossil skeleton Little Foot (or Australopithecus prometheus) oldest most complete Australopithecus ever found; also believed to be oldest Homo skeleton found (see Archaeology Magazine and Science Now)

australopithecine “little foot”

New study shows that Native Americans and Russians share same language traits, dialects reveals how ancestors migrated 13,000 years ago 

Archaeologists want to explore human origins, Georgia wants to mine gold, which is worth more? 

Archaeologists tired of unearthing unspeakable ancient evils 

Billionaires with big ideas are privatizing American science 

1600 year old basilica dedicated to St Neophytus discovered in Turkey’s Lake Iznik architecturally similar to Hagia Sofia 

Burials in Greece linked to Macedonian kings 

Learn how archaeologists in the rural highlands of Peru are supporting the local schools by providing young boys and girls with opportunities (read more about the field school PIARA at the wordpress blog the Ancash Advocate)

Egyptians may have domesticated cats around 6,000 years ago based on cat skeletons found in cemetery, see also Live Science 

3200 year-old skeleton has oldest known example of cancer (metastatic carcinoma) associated with modern lifestyle  (such as environmental–carcinogens from wood fire smoke, genetic or from the parasite schistosomiasis), for more information see Archaeology Magazine and great photos visit Popular archaeology 

Graduate students should be encouraged to explore jobs outside academia and seek advice through campus career services 

Evolutionary fitness is not the most important determinant of success 

Classical archaeologist looks to shipwrecks and harbors to examine economic networks during Roman Empire 

“An anthropologists walks into a bar…” beer company hires social anthropologists to figure out why business is waning 

20+ skills that make PhDs employable 

Architecture analysis offers new clues to Petra’s culture 

Styloid process, an osteological genetic mutation that may have enabled humans to make tools, found in ancient fossil

Shocking facts from the scaffold 

Grad student deciphers 1800 year old letter from Egyptian solider 

What is plaque? 

Footless body with sheep bones discovered in UK 

Thinking more about teeth, dental anthropology

Study shows that race determines earwax scent

Why dark chocolate is good for your heart 

Cavities (tooth decay) causes, symptoms, and treatments 

Archaeologists use lasers to map site of Angkor, heart of SE Asia’s Khmer Empire 

Human nose can distinguish between a trillion smells

Amazon Warrior Women: Any truth behind the myth? 

High demand for underwater archaeology in Vietnam 

Conche shells evolved to be smaller because of hungry humans 

Vatican library to digitize its archive and put it online 

Epigenetics: the controversial science behind ethic and racial health disparities

Archaeologists are learning more about the Roman baths between Mġarr to Gћajn Tuffieћa in Malta 

A lot is known about Colonial India, but less about Ancient India 

Primatologists study infant chimps to get at root of gender differences in humans 

This week in anthropology, archaeology, bioarchaeology, biological anthropology

Modern Iberian populations not genetically related to Mesolithic populations in Spain 

Remains of executed Indian soldiers found in well

Construction for Olympic stadium reveals slave cemetery in Rio 

Mass grave of Irish laborers found in Pennsylvania

4,000 year-old burial found in Dartmoor rewrites bronze-age history in Britain 

Exhumed bones from the Franco period brings crimes of Spanish dictatorship to surface

Dark skin may have evolved to protect against skin cancer 

Check out the Order of the Good Death, a collaboration of “funeral industry professionals, academics, and artists exploring ways to prepare a death phobic culture for their inevitable mortality”

Nine maps that have shaped the world 

New research suggests that unusual weather aided the rise of the Mongol empire in the 1200s

DNA analysis shows that natural selection has altered the appearance (skin, hair, and eye pigmentation) of Europeans over the past 5000 years, see also at ScienceNews and ScienceDaily

Who has received the most NSF grants for archaeology, interesting results, shows women underrepresented

David J. Skorton of Cornell to head Smithsonian’s 19 museums , 9 research organizations, and zoo 

Remains of medieval monk discovered after his legs found poking out of sea ridge

Archaeologists may have covered palace of Anglo-Saxon royals who buried their dead near Sutton Hoo 

DNA study finds millions of Scots and Brits decedents from Vikings 

Why Americans are the weirdest people on Earth 

Volcanoes helped species survive the Ice Age, helps scientists understand how animals respond the climate change

Personality predicts social learning in wild monkeys: bold or anxious baboons learn to solve tasks from other baboons, shy and nervous baboons don’t

Problem with foundation of the Pyramid of the Sun, might collapse in near future

DNA politics: Anzick child casts doubt on Bering Straight theory 

Peru plans to make bug changes for Machu Picchu visitors, for potation and preservation of site

Descendants of Richard III campaign to have last medieval king’s remains buried in York 

Jane Goodall discusses wildlife poaching crisis in Africa

Anglo-Saxon royal village discovered whose people buried their royal dead at Sutton Hoo

Human bones from Welsh cliff could be from “unofficial” Tudor burial ground 

New excavations start at Troy lead by Turkish team

Archaeologists study 4,000 year old settlement in Hungary

For PiDay Smithsonian’s Human Origins asks how many early human species were on earth 3.14 million years ago?  

Second skeleton found at Wanapun Dam on Columbia River, Washington state 

Residents of Timbuktu, Mail, begin reconstruction on mausoleum, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, after armed extremists damaged site during 2012 occupation 

Jane Goodall included on list of 12 Women Who Totally Rocked Science in honor of Womens’ History Month 

US agreed to return 4000 year old Egyptian artifacts smuggled out of the country in 2011